ISO standards covering Machine Safety
ISO standards can play an important role in ensuring machine safety in various sectors. One of the most important standards in machine safety is ISO 13849. ISO 13849 assesses the safety of machinery and equipment based on the likelihood of hazardous events and the severity of their consequences. But there are other ISO standards that describe how to safely design, install and maintain machinery. Some of these we will briefly highlight in this article.
But first, what are ISO standards?
ISO standards are international standards developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). These standards are designed to promote uniformity and consistency in various aspects including, technology, health and safety.
ISO standards cover a wide range of topics, including quality management, environment, information protection, food safety, energy management and corporate social responsibility. The standards are developed by experts from different industries and countries and are based on best practices and consensus.
ISO standards are voluntary and non-binding, but are often used by companies and organisations to improve processes, reduce risks and comply with regulations.
Which ISO Standards are related to machine safety?
Machine safety is an important aspect in industries. It is very important to ensure that machines are safe for users. To ensure this, several ISO standards have been drawn up that describe how machinery can be safely designed, installed and maintained.
Some of the most important ISO standards for machine safety:
ISO 12100: Safety of machinery - General design principles - Risk assessment and risk reduction
The ISO 12100 standard describes the general design principles for machine safety and provides guidance on risk assessment and risk reduction for machinery. This means that the safety of users must be taken into account when designing a machine, and that risks must be identified and assessed. It then requires measures to be taken to reduce or completely eliminate these risks.
The standard provides a structured approach to identifying and evaluating risks involved in working with machinery. The risk assessment is based on a systematic analysis of all potential hazards that the machine can cause and the likelihood that these hazards will occur.
But the standard also provides for identifying measures to reduce risks. Risk reduction involves determining the risk reduction measures and corresponding safety levels needed to reduce hazards to an acceptable level. This includes selecting safety measures such as machine guarding, interlocks and emergency stops.
ISO 12100 also emphasises the importance of involving all relevant stakeholders in the risk assessment and risk reduction process, including designers, manufacturers, end-users and maintenance personnel. The aim is to design a machine that can be safely used, maintained and repaired throughout its lifetime.
ISO 13849-1: Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems - Part 1: General design principles
ISO 13849-1 is an international standard that describes the general design principles for safety-related parts of machine control systems. It provides a structured approach to the design and evaluation of machine safety systems.
The standard provides guidelines for determining the safety functions needed to reduce the risks associated with the use of machinery. This takes factors like the origin of the hazards, the probability of exposure to the hazards and the severity of possible injuries into account.
The standard also defines the required Performance Levels (PL) for the safety functions of machinery. These Performance Levels are used to determine whether the machine’s safety functions are sufficient to reduce risks to an acceptable level.
ISO 14119: Safety of machinery - Interlocking mechanical protective devices
ISO 14119 is an international standard that provides guidance on the design, selection and application of blocking mechanical safety devices. These devices are used to restrict or prevent access to dangerous areas of machinery.
The standard describes the different types of blocking mechanical safety devices, such as door interlocks, safety switches and Trapped Key Interlocks and their applications. In addition, the standard provides guidance on the design of these devices, including the positioning and strength of the mounting material.
The standard also sets requirements for the performance of these devices, including the reliability of blocking, effectiveness of fault detection and the resistance to tampering or bypassing. Furthermore, it sets requirements for the testing and evaluation of safety devices to ensure their safety and reliability.
ISO 14119 emphasises the importance of integrating blocking mechanical protective devices into an overall machine safety management system and ensuring good communication between the different components of this system. In doing so, it considers the risks associated with machine operation and user safety.
ISO 13850: Safety of machinery - Emergency stop - Principles for design
ISO 13850 is an international standard that provides principles for the design of emergency stop devices on machinery. An emergency stop device is a device that allows the machine to be shut down quickly and safely in case of an emergency.
The standard describes the basic principles for designing emergency stop devices, including the location, colour and design of emergency stop buttons. The objective is to ensure that the emergency stop device is easy to find and operate in case of an emergency, and that it prevents unintended use.
There are also requirements for the performance of the emergency stop device. For example, the emergency stop button must disengage the machine quickly and reliably and must withstand repeated use. Furthermore, the emergency stop device must be designed so that it cannot be bypassed or disabled without intention.
ISO 13850 also stresses the importance of integrating emergency stop devices into the machine’s overall safety management system. This takes the risks associated with machine operation and operator safety into account. The standard recommends integrating emergency stop devices with other safety devices and training machine users in the correct use of the emergency stop device.
ISO 10218: Robots for industrial environments - Safety requirements - Part 1: Robots
ISO 10218 is an international standard that establishes safety requirements for industrial robots. It is a two-part document, with Part 1 focusing on safety requirements for robots, and Part 2 focusing on safety requirements for integrating robots into systems.
Part 1 of the standard, ISO 10218-1, focuses on safety requirements for robots and sets requirements for the design and construction features of industrial robots to ensure the safety of human operators and other persons in their environment. The standard describes the different types of hazards that can be associated with the operation of robots, these include collisions, pinched fingers, sharp edges and electrical hazards.
The standard also includes requirements for the design features of the robot, like avoiding sharp edges and minimising openings in which fingers can become trapped. It also sets requirements for the sensors and detection systems used to prevent the robot from hitting or trapping people.
ISO 10218-1 also specifies requirements for the documentation and labelling of robots, which includes manuals, warning labels and identification of risks and hazards.
Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC) & ANSI/RIA R15.06-2012 standard
Besides these ISO standards, other standards and guidelines are also relevant for machine safety, in particular the Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC) and the ANSI/RIA R15.06-2012 standard. It is important to be aware of the relevant standards and guidelines when designing, installing and using machinery to ensure the safety of workers and users.
Check out our laws and regulations page for more information on laws and regulations related to machine safety.